An in-text citation is a reference within your paper to the source that informed your writing. APA format generally utilizes the author-year model, for example (Smith, 2012). Please see examples below for more guidance. Remember that all sources mentioned in the paper must also appear on the reference page except for personal communications (such as private letters or telephone conversations) and general references to whole websites (versus a specific page or item on the website).
If you are paraphrasing or summarizing a main idea from a source, only the author and the publication year need to be referenced. There are several different ways to do this.
If you quote directly from a source, make sure to use quotation marks and include the author’s last name, year of publication, and the specific page number for the reference, if available. If you introduce the author in the sentence, make sure that the year of publication follows the author's last name, as shown in Example 2.
When quoting, summarizing or paraphrasing from works by two authors, follow these guidelines. More information is available from APA Style here.
When referring to the work in a sentence, reference the authors by last name connected by 'and'.
For in-text citations, list both author's names connected by an ampersand (&).
When quoting, summarizing or paraphrasing from works with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name in all citations followed by “et al.”
If a quote is 40 or more words, use a free-standing block, as shown below:
Human society is located between these two; a society of persons who are material individuals, hence isolated each within itself but nonetheless requiring communication with one another as far as possible here below in anticipation of that perfect communion with one another and God in life eternal. The terrestrial common good of such a society is…superior the proper good of each member but flows back upon each. (Martain 1966, p. 59)
Unlike shorter quotes where you place a period after the page number, longer quotes require a period at the end of the quote but not after the page number in the parenthetical citation, as shown above.
To see an example of citations in an APA 7th ed. formatted paper, take a look at a sample paper below.
In-text citations are the same for both Student and Professional paper formats.