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APA 7th ed. Style Guide

Help with using the APA 7th ed. Style Guide for writing.

General rules for books and eBooks

  • Cite physical print books and eBooks exactly the same way except when a DOI is provided. (See examples below.)
  • Biblical references mentioned in your paper must also appear on the references page (See "How to cite the Bible" page.)


Author’s last name, First Initial. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capitalize first letter of the word after the colon and italicize. Publisher.

Example (book or eBook, no DOI):

Smith, A. (2012). Citing sources and getting the grade. Great Publishers.

Example (eBook only):

O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values.

Example (edited book with DOI and multiple publishers):

Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American

Psychological Association; DeGruyter Mouton.

Example (chapter from edited book):

Perigogn, A.U., & Brazel. P.L. (2012). Captain of the ship. In J.L. Auger (Ed.) Wake up in the dark (pp. 108-121).

Shawshank Publications.

Example (book with an edition or volume number):

Fiske, S. T., Gilbert, D.T., & Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed., Vol. 1.) John Wiley & Sons.

DOIs and URLs


A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works.


A URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. URLs in references should link directly to the cited work when possible.

For more information about the use of DOIs and URLs in APA style, go to the APA website:


See examples of a References list using the APA 7th ed. format in the sample papers, below.

The References page format is the same for both Student and Professional papers.

See specific examples for how to list books, journal articles, the Bible, and other types of items in the dropdown menu under References.