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Information Literacy

To be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information. Information literate people are those who have learned how to learn.

ACT UP Resources for Librarians

Dawn Stahura, “ACT UP: Evaluating Sources,” accessed July 4, 2020 (

The ACT UP method of evaluating sources is about "shifting the research paradigm to make room for other voices". Knowing about "systemic oppressions in classification systems" provides researchers with skills to be more informed decision makers. To ACT UP in research is to "recognize the importance of discerning fact from fiction and how these research skills can allow [researchers] to be more socially just in all facets of their lives."

Stahura, Dawn. "ACT UP for evaluating sources: Pushing against privilege" College & Research Libraries News [Online], Volume 79 Number 10 (8 November 2018) Available:

Evaluating Information for Academic Quality

Now that you've found information, you will need to evaluate that information for academic quality and determine if it will address your research needs.

Video produced by the NYIT Library.

The CRAAP Method

The CRAAP Method (aka CRAAP Test) is a method used to evaluate information for appropriate academic quality. Apply the following criteria to your information to see if it should be used. Criteria in red apply to Internet websites.

Currency = timeliness of the information

  • When was it published?
  • Has it been revised or updated?
  • Do you require current information or will older sources work?
  • Are the links functional?

Relevance = the importance of the information

  • Does it relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information presented at an appropriate level?

Authority = credibility of the source of the information

  • Who is the author/publisher/source?
  • What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations?
  • Is the author qualified to write on the topic?
  • Is there contact information?
  • Does the URL reveal anything about the source? (i.e. .gov, .edu., .org, .com, .net)

Accuracy = reliability or truthfulness of the content

  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is it supported by evidence?
  • Has the information been peer reviewed or refereed?
  • Can you verify it in another source?
  • Are there spelling, grammar, or typographical errors?

Purpose = reason the information exists

  • Do the authors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Is the information fact, opinion, propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective or impartial?
  • Is the information biased? (i.e. political, ideological, religious, cultural, or personal bias)

ACT UP Method for Evaluating Sources

The ACT UP Method*

(The ACT UP method of evaluating sources is similar to the CRAAP method but adds a component for determining if there are some missing voices in the research. It is not to be confused with the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) international grassroots political group working to end the AIDS pandemic.)

A - author. Who wrote the resource? Who are they? Background information matters.

C - currency. When was this resource written? When was it published? Does this resource fit into the currency of your topic?

T - truth. How accurate is this information? Can you verify any of the claims in other sources? Are there typos and spelling mistakes?

U - unbiased. Is the information presented to sway the audience to a particular point of view? Resources unless otherwise stated should be impartial.

P - privilege. Check the privilege of the author(s). Are they the only folks who might write or publish on this topic? Who is missing in this conversation? Critically evaluate the subject terms associated with each resource you found. How are they described? What are the inherent biases?