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Style Guides - APA, MLA, Turabian/Chicago: Home

Guide to style manuals used at HIU.

Research takes time. 

For example, a 10-page paper should take about 2 to 3 weeks.

First, make sure you understand the assignment. Study the description, make an outline, highlight key words and phrases, rewrite it in your own words, ask your classmates if they understand it the same way as you do, and ask your professor for any clarification.

Some practical questions:

  1. How many pages should it be?
  2. What kinds of sources do you need to consult?
  3. What style guide does your professor prefer/require?

If this is new to you, you might be wondering,

What is a style guide?

If so, read on...

What is a style guide and why use one?

What is a style guide?

A style guide is also called a style manual or a citation manual. It is a manual with rules for language, spelling, formatting the research paper (or other writing), and punctuation. It provides standards for citations, references, and bibliographies and renders a work consistent.

When should I use a style guide?

It is almost always appropriate to use a style guide and it is often mandatory. Always check with your professor to determine which style guide you should use for work submitted in that class. If you are submitting your writing to a publisher for publication, it is a good idea to check the publication's submission guidelines.

How do I know which style guide to use?

The matter of which style guide is not usually left up to the writer. Your area of study, your university, and/or your professor will determine which of the several style guides you should use. If you submit your writing to a publisher for publication, the publisher will determine the style. During your academic career and throughout your lifetime of writing you might use several different style guides. Always find out which style guide is required.

Where do I get a style guide?

Most libraries have style guides in the Reference collection or on Reserve. See below for location and call numbers of style guides in the HIU Library. You can also purchase style guides from most booksellers.

Which style guides are generally used for different areas of study?

Social Sciences
APA - Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association - RESERVE 808 P976

Arts & Humanities
MLA - MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (Modern Language Association) - RESERVE 808.027 M685

Biblical Studies, Philosophy & select Humanities
The Chicago Manual of Style - MAIN 808.027 C532 1993
A Manual for Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian) - RESERVE 808.02 T929m
SBL Handbook of Style  

Which style guide should I use?

Generally speaking the colleges of HIU have adopted the following style guides but you should always consult your syllabus or ask your professor which guide to use.


College of Psychology and Counseling
  • APA
College of Business and Management
  • APA
College of Education
  • APA for Master's theses
Pacific Christian College of Ministry and Biblical Studies
  • Turabian, Chicago, or SBL