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Evaluating Sources: CRAAP Method

Guide to understanding "scholarly sources" and evaluating academic quality.

Evaluating Sources

The CRAAP Method


  • Was it "published" recently enough?
  • Is the data from a recent enough study?


  • Is it directly related to your topic?
  • Is the academic level of the resource appropriate to your research?
  • Does it use scholarly or technical language?
  • Does it assume the reader is well educated in the discipline?
  • Is this something you would feel comfortable citing in your research?


  • Are they an authority in this field?
  • What makes them an authority?
  • Is there contact information to verify the information about the creator / author?
  • Is the journal an authority in the field?
  • Is the cite domain appropriate for its content and creator? (.edu, .gov, .mil, .org, .net, or .com)


  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Are there citation or documentation to evidence?
  • Are there hyperlinks to other sites with evidence?
  • Is there an explanation of the research methodology?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed by editors or peers?


  • Is there a stated purpose by the creator of the content?
  • The information is presented as fact. Not as opinion or propaganda?
  • Are various sides of an issue presented evenly?
  • The language is objective in tone? Not biased language?
  • No biases present? (political, religious, cultural, ideological, or personal)